Archive for the 'News and Current Events' Category
I have always thought that the five-second rule was stupid. The five-second rule is the belief that if food falls on the floor and you pick it up within five seconds, it’s safe to eat. Well, there’s actually some evidence now that shows that I may be wrong.
Researchers at Ashton University in the United Kingdom conducted a study in which they had students drop food on the floor, food such as toast (heated, crisp bread), pasta (Italian dish with noodles or other shapes made with flour), cookies, and candy. Then, they measured how much bacteria (very small living things that can cause illness and disease) gets on each type of food for different durations (periods of time) ranging from three to 30 seconds.
The longer the food remained on the floor, the more bacteria there was on it. How much bacteria gets on it depends on two other things.
Not surprising, wet foods pick up more bacteria.
Hard flooring also resulted in more bacteria. Tile (hard flooring in squares, made of material that has been baked) or laminate (hard flooring made of several layers of pressed material, usually made to look like wood) floors resulted in more bacteria on food than carpet (soft covering on the floor installed wall to wall).
However, the researchers say that this doesn’t mean it’s okay to eat off the floor, because your risk (chance of being harmed) depends also on what type of bacteria is on the floor at that time.
But these results are good news to most people. About 87% of people surveyed (asked questions for research purposes) in the study said that they ate food that had fallen on the floor.
Given (as a result of) these results, I will do my best to only eat dry foods while sitting on carpet, and not worry about the extra flavoring (something placed on food to enhance its taste) and garnish (something put on food to make it look more attractive) I get from that carpet if my food falls on it. Yum!
Image Credit: Floris Claesz. van Dyck from Wikipedia
When we think of IDs (identification documents), we often think that having our photo on it makes it impossible for anyone else to use it. That’s not necessarily (100%) true.
A study published recently tested how well people spotted (identified; found) fake (not real or authentic) IDs, especially in real-world (true; actual) situations. For example, one place where you want to know if someone is using a fake ID is in an airport security line.
But in that sort of real-world situation, the person looking at IDs is unlikely to come across (see) many fake IDs. The overwhelming (by a large amount) majority of people use their real IDs at an airport.
And that’s precisely the problem. According to the results of this study, the less frequently a person comes across a fake ID, the less likely he or she is able to spot one. In the study, when the frequency of fakes was high, the study participants were wrong only 20% of the time. But when there were fewer fakes, they were wrong 40% of the time.
Part of the difficulty in using photo IDs to identify people is that people age (grow older), change their hairstyles, wear glasses or not, or wear make-up or not (cosmetics worn on the face to improve one’s appearance). In the study, many of the photos were taken months or years before the time of the study, which also match real-world conditions. In the U.S., many passports and drivers licenses are valid (acceptable by law or rule) for 10 years or more.
I recently renewed (extended the period for) my California driver’s license. When I got my previous license, it was good for (valid for) 10 years. I was able to renew my license for five more years using the government website without having a new photo taken. This means that at the end of the five-year period, my picture will be 15 years old. Without plastic surgery (medical procedures to improve my appearance) or a wig, I will look very different and much older than when I first had the picture taken back in the Clinton administration (when Bill Clinton was president of the U.S.).
Who might be good at spotting fake IDs? In other words, what kind of person sees a lot of fake IDs as part of his or her job? One answer will not surprise you: bouncers, people hired by nightclubs and bars to keep out people who are underage (younger than the legal drinking age, usually 21) or who are causing problems. They encounter fake IDs all the time, especially here in the U.S.
Perhaps the solution is simply: Hire more bouncers as security screeners (people who check documents to be sure that person is safe to allow into a place)!
Image Credit: Passport card from Wikipedia
Wikipedia is a useful, though not always reliable (able to be trusted), source of information about people in the news, in history, and popular culture. Now, it may also become a place to go to find out what people sound like (the characteristics of their voice).
Recently, Wikipedia started soliciting (asking for) 10-second sound recordings for the people who have entries (individual pages) on Wikipedia. People and organizations are being asked to supply (give for use) open-licensed (with its use not restricted) and open-format (not restricted by file type) recordings that can be added to entries. The main request is that the recording include the notable person pronouncing their own name to show their own preference, since there is often disagreement.
So far, only a few Wikipedia entries have sound recordings. Among them are those of Emma Thompson, an English actress, and Dustin Hoffman, an American actor. But there are also voices of non-celebrities (people known in popular culture, usually from TV, films, and sports), such as English scientist Jane Goodall, Burmese political figure Aung San Suu Kyi, and American author John Updike.
Unfortunately, so far, there is no recording of Charlie Chaplin, but the project is still in its infancy (at its beginning; only just begun).
Whose voice from today or from history would you most like to hear?
Photo Credit: Original Nipper from Wikipedia
With the Winter Olympics Games beginning this Friday, February 7th, I thought I’d talk a little bit about some of the major sports we’ll see over the two to three weeks at this sporting event. By my count (based on my calculations), there are about 15 major winter sporting events in this year’s Olympics. I won’t talk about all of them, but just mention a few.
Alpine skiing, also known as downhill skiing, is perhaps the sport people most associate with (connect to) winter. Skiers wear skis — long, thin pieces of a hard material such as metal, wood, or fiberglass — and slide very quickly down hills.
Figure and freestyle skating are usually indoor sports where skaters move over ice in graceful (elegant; not clumsy) movements doing very high and very fast turns and jumps. There are individual competitions, pair skating (with two people), and ice dancing. Since I’m pretty clumsy (not graceful) in real life, trying to dance on ice on a pair of ice skates is my ultimate nightmare (the worst thing I can imagine), but I still enjoy watching other people do it.
Now for a few less commonly talked about winter sports:
Curling is a sport where people move a stone over ice toward a target (place that you try to hit or reach) with the help of brooms (normally used for moving dirt on the floor when cleaning it) to change the stones’ direction and speed. I’ve wondered what I should be doing with that broom in my house. Now I know.
Luge is a very fast-moving sport, where one or two people place themselves in a supine position (laying down, facing the sky) and feet forward in a sled (small vehicle for moving over ice) moving on a downhill course (path). Speeds can reach nearly 90 miles (140 kilometers) per hour!
Another sport that requires sliding is the skeleton. The skeleton also involves a sled, but the athlete lays face down, head first and travels down a frozen path. This is also a very fast and dangerous sport. Note to self (reminder for myself): Don’t buy a sled.
I’ll mention just one more sport you may see in the Olympics: the biathlon. A biathlon can actually refer to any sporting event that combines two sports (also popular are triathlon (three events), pentathlon (five events), and decathlon (10 events)). In the Winter Olympics, the biathlon involves cross-country skiing (skiing across fairly flat land, not down big hills) and rifle shooting. (A rifle is a gun you shoot from your shoulder that has a long barrel or hollow piece of wood or metal that the bullet travels through.) The athlete must cross-country ski to each target and either lay prone (on his/her stomach) or stand to shoot at it, then travel to the next target, and so on.
The other sports I have not mentioned include bobsleigh (also called bobsled), ice hockey, speed skating, ski jumping, and snowboarding, among others.
Do you participate in any of these sports? Which sports are you most interested in seeing in the Winter Olympics?
Photo Credit: Snowboarding from Wikipedia
I am a convert (someone who didn’t believe but now does). For a very long time, I resisted reading electronic books. I like the look of physical books, I like the smell of them, and I even like the little yellowing that occurs on the pages in old books.
But a couple of years ago, I broke down (finally gave up) and bought an electronic book reader and downloaded reading apps (computer programs used most often with smartphones and tablet computers) onto my smart phone. Almost from the first (immediately), I could see the benefits of ebook reading. I can carry a lot of books around with me, I could change the fonts, and I could even read in low (not bright) light.
What I didn’t realize until recently is that ebook technology has also changed how the blind (people unable to see) read. Most Americans who are blind learn to read using the braille system. The braille system uses a series of dots (like a period ” . “) that represent letters. Each set of dots is called a “cell” and dots themselves are referred to as “raised dots,” with “raised” meaning higher than the area around it.
Using a device (electronic piece of equipment, usually a small one) called a refreshable braille display like the one in the photo above, each cell changes as the device “reads” different text. For example, one dot raised in the left corner of a cell represents the letter “a.” When the refreshable display is attached to a computer or similar device, the display turns the text into braille.
That’s where current technology comes in. New reading apps allow readers to download books they want to read onto a smartphone, tablet, or computer. When these devices are connected to a refreshable braille reader, a blind person has access to anything a sighted (not blind) person does. This has opened a larger world of reading for the blind.
We have the Frenchman Louis Braille to thank for the braille system, and technology and app developers (people who create apps and computer programs) to thank for opening up this new resource for an entire population of readers. I have an even greater appreciation of these advances knowing what they have achieved.
Is the braille system used in the languages you know? If not, what systems are used?
Photo Credit: Refreshable Braille Display from Wikipedia
Would it surprise you to know that the U.S. government has $18 billion that rightfully (legitimately; according to the rules) belongs to Americans? It’s true.
The U.S. government has a substantial (very much; very high) amount of unclaimed (not asked for; not collected by the owner) cash.
The first category of money that belongs to Americans is money that people have paid or lent (given as a loan) to the government but have failed to (not) ask to get back. This includes savings bonds and tax refunds.
Savings bonds are a type of investment sold by the government when it needs money to pay its debt (money owed to someone else). People buy these securities (investments) in different denominations (amounts of money), from as low as $25 to as high as $10,000. After (at least) six months, these bonds can be cashed in (traded for money) to get the original investment back plus a little extra in interest (a percentage of the money loaned). These bonds are considered very safe investments because they are backed by (supported by) the government. But some people buy savings bonds and then never cash them in! That’s a large part of the money the government owes Americans.
A tax refund is money that you’ve paid the government through your job, but because you’ve either (a) paid too much to the government in taxes, (b) made very little money that year, and/or (c) had special circumstances (called deductions) that allow you to not pay as much in taxes, you should get back from the government after you file your taxes (officially submit your tax documents, usually by April 15th of each year). But, again, some people never ask for their tax refund, and that’s also part of the money the government has that belongs to Americans.
Another large sum (amount) of money is related to lawsuits, where you take a dispute (argument) to court and let the court decide who is right. In the U.S., there are many class-action lawsuits, which are cases where a company is sued (asked to pay money) on behalf of (for) an entire group of people whom the company has wronged (treated unfairly), such as customers who bought a bad product or a group of people hurt by a company’s action. Oftentimes (frequently), the money that is awarded (given to) to the group of people suing is in a lump sum (one large amount), which should then be divided among (split and given to) the people in the group. Usually, the amount each individual is supposed to receive is very small, such as $2 or $5. Some people don’t even know they have been included in (are part of the group for the) class-action lawsuits and never claim their money. Others don’t bother claiming such a small amount. All that money remains with the courts (that is, the government) until it is claimed.
If you think the government owes you money, there are websites that can help you get your money back, such as this one and this one. If you get any money back, I will only claim half.
Photo Credit: New100front from Wikipedia
If you frequently (often) read the blog and listen to the podcast, you know we focus on American topics. However, I recently came across (discovered; found) a research study conducted (done) in Great Britain that is so important that I had to write about it here.
The medical journal BMJ (formerly (originally; in the past) called the British Medical Journal) recently published a study to see if disagreeing with your wife gets in the way of (prevents) a husband being happy. The researchers hypothesized (proposed as an explanation) that if a husband simply agreed with his wife’s opinion or agreed to do whatever she asked without argument, there would be fewer arguments and less conflict and, therefore, less stress and more happiness for both.
A couple (two people who are romantically involved) was chosen for the experiment. The husband was told “to agree with his wife’s every opinion and request without complaint (saying that he didn’t want to)…[e]ven if he believed the female participant (the wife, in this case) was wrong.” The wife was NOT told what the husband was doing. The researchers asked the participants their level of happiness before and after the experiment.
It’s unclear how long the researchers intended the experiment to last (continue to the end), but after 12 days, the husband could not stand it (tolerate it) any longer. He told his wife about the experiment and the experiment ended.
The results? The husband’s happiness on a scale of 1 to 10 went from an 7 at the beginning to a 3 at the end, and the wife’s happiness increased from 8 to 8.5 after six days; she refused to give her opinion after the study ended and she knew what was going on (happening). The result is clear: Not being right is very stressful for a husband and makes him very unhappy.
If you are a researcher and you’re reading this right now, you are probably wondering what kind of junk (trash; worthless) science I’m telling you about. Well, you’re right, it’s not intended to be taken seriously. BMJ is a real and reputable (with others having a good opinion of it) scientific publication. However, each year, it publishes a Christmas issue that contains offbeat (unusual) and humorous (funny) studies. That doesn’t mean that the research isn’t good, but it does mean that it wasn’t done with complete seriousness. You can read this and other studies here.
Graphic Credit: Used with CC Permission
If someone asked you, “Are you physically fit (healthy, especially from exercise)?” what would you say? That question is easier to answer today because a group of scientists have created a new way – called fitness age – to measure physical fitness.
If you are physically fit, you will probably live longer. And if you are physically fit, you have lower risk (negative possibility) of experiencing anxiety (worry), depression, heart disease, diabetes (disease in which there is too much sugar in the blood), certain kinds of cancer, and high blood pressure.
There are several aspects (parts) to physical fitness, but aerobic fitness – the ability of your heart and lungs to supply oxygen-rich (containing a large amount of oxygen) blood to your body – is one of the most important.
Measuring aerobic fitness usually requires special equipment. But a recent article in the New York Times describes how a group of scientists in Norway worked together to find a simple way to measure aerobic fitness and estimate (measure approximately) fitness age – how well someone’s body works physically, compared to how well it should work at a certain age.
These scientists studied almost 5,000 people between the ages of 20 and 90. They made physical measurements, asked questions about their lifestyles (how they lived), and measured how well their hearts and lungs supplied oxygen-rich blood to their bodies.
When the scientists studied the data (pieces of information) they had collected, they found that they could estimate a person’s fitness age by putting five measurements – age, gender (male/female), waist circumference (distance around the middle part of your body), resting heart rate (how fast your heart beats when you’re resting), how often you exercise, and how hard your exercise – into a special formula (a set of calculations, like addition).
They used this formula to create an online calculator that anyone can use to find their fitness age and learn how fit they are. If you are typical (like most people your age), your fitness age and your actual age will be the same. If your physical fitness is poor, your fitness age will be higher than your actual age. If it is good, it will be lower than your actual age.
If you’d like to get an estimate of your fitness age, take a few minutes now to try the calculator. All the instructions you need are on the web page.
How did you do? I was happily surprised by my fitness age. I expected it to be lower than my actual age – many of you will remember that I do a lot of bicycle riding – but it was even lower than I expected.
If you would like to lower your fitness age, the good news is that you can do it, no matter how old you are, with aerobic exercise. If you’d like to lower yours, this short article by Covert Bailey can help you get started. One of his books helped me begin to get fit many years ago.
*The title is a joke. Years ago, when I started exercising regularly, a friend gave me a t-shirt with this phrase – Physically Phfft – on it. “Phfft” sounds like the word “fit” without the “i”. It’s an expression some people use to describe something that ends or fails in a disappointing way – for example, “I wanted to go to the beach with my friends, but my plans went phfft when they decided not to go!” Hopefully, all of us are physically fit, not phfft!
~ Warren Ediger, ESL tutor/coach and creator of the Successful English web site.
Photo courtesy of Wikipedia Commons.
A recent research study (a carefully controlled investigation to get information and explanations) published in a journal (professional magazine of scientific information) called Psychology Science is the reason I will only be taking easy tests from now on.
A recent news report about the study said that researchers found that older people with an average age of 75 who took a memory test (a test of how much one remembers) said they felt five years older after the test.
Maybe everyone feels older after taking a memory test. No so (true). When two groups of people — one group of older adults and one group of young people in their 20’s — took the memory test, only the older adults reported feeling older afterwards.
Maybe it’s taking any kind of test that makes people feel older. Again, not true. When two groups of older adults took two kinds of different tests — one group taking the memory test and one group taking a vocabulary test — only the memory test group felt older afterwards.
The researchers say that it’s because the test highlights (gives attention to) one of people’s greatest fears about aging (getting older): losing their memory. In a related study, when people were told that they did well on a strength test (test of how strong someone is), they not only felt younger, but did better on future strength tests.
The implications (what should be done based on this information) are clear. If you feel you’re getting old, only take easy tests. That may sound silly (not smart or wise), but the researchers themselves point out that older adults are good at vocabulary tests and puzzles, often acing (do very well at) these types of tests or activities. This may be because an older person’s life experience can be brought to bear (used to get results) on these kinds of challenges.
Do you have any concerns about getting older? Is losing your memory one of those concerns?
Photo Credit: Migraine from Wikipedia
Stamp collecting was a much more popular pastime (hobby) 50 to 100 years ago, but philately — the technical name for stamp collecting — is still alive and well (existing and active) in the U.S. today. One of the most famous U.S. stamps that any philatelists — the technical name for stamp collectors — would like to own is known as the Inverted Jenny. (“Inverted” means upside down, where the top is at the bottom and the bottom is at the top.)
In May of 1918, the U.S. government decided to try a new type of mail service that would use an airplane to transport mail between Washington, D.C., Philadelphia, and New York City — all cities on the East Coast of the United States. For this new service, people would need to pay 24 cents, a significantly higher price than other letter-delivery services. So the government decided to print a new stamp just for this airmail service. The stamp pictured (showed the image of) the Curtiss JN-4 airplane, nicknamed (given the informal name) “Jenny,” which would transport the mail between those cities.
The U.S. Postal Service had only a short amount of time to produce this new stamp. The stamp also had two colors on it, which meant that it had to be fed through (put through a machine) the printing machine two times, first printing one color and then the second. Sometimes, when it was put through the second time, the sheet of stamps was upside down. All of the “mistakes” were caught (identified) during production, except for one. One sheet of 100 stamps with this mistake escaped notice (was not seen or identified). That sheet of stamps contained the only Inverted Jennys available today.
A stamp collector went to the post office to buy the new stamp in 1918 and quickly realized that he had something special. He sold the sheet of stamps quickly and with the proceeds (money received from the sale) bought a house.
Since that time, this sheet of stamps has been taken apart, and many of the Inverted Jenny stamps have been been sold separately or in small numbers. Each stamp is worth in the area of (approximately) three quarters of a million dollars ($750,000) to $1 million.
Now, you can own an Inverted Jenny. The U.S. Postal Service is issuing (producing) Inverted Jenny stamps for sale. But, there is a twist (something unexpected). One hundred of the sheets produced will be right-side up, meaning they will appear as they should have originally with the top on top and the bottom on the bottom. All sheets of stamps will be packaged so that you won’t be able to see them before buying. The government hopes to get people excited about the new stamps, to create new interest in stamp collecting, and to add to their coffers (make more money). These new right-side up stamps will, of course, become collectable (wanted by people who collect this type of thing) almost immediately.
Have you ever collected stamps? Is stamp collecting a popular pastime where you live, now or in the past? Are there any special stamps you remember owning or seeing?
Photo Credit: USA Inverted Jenny from Wikipedia